Judo Terms

Ai-yotsu

What is Ai-yotsu? The Aiyotsu is the basic Judo fighting stance, with both opponents using their same hand (right or left) as their Hiki-te (Pulling hand). A stance in which both contestants grasp the opponent's left sleeve with their right hand is called a "right grip", and the reverse is called a "left grip". Simply, it is the same grip used by both persons, either right or left. Aiyotsu (Same grip used by both persons)
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Ashi

What is Ashi? Foot, leg
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Ashi Waza

What is Ashi Waza? Ashi waza (Foot / leg techniques) are part of the Nage waza (Throwing techniques) category, and consist of using one's foot / leg for reaping, tripping, sweeping, supporting, entangling, etc. A contestant applies these Waza by adding his own force to the opponent's motion in order to destabilize the opponent's Center of gravity in the forward, backward, or lateral direction, and then using his foot / leg to attack the opponent's leg and topple him. The Ashi waza (Foot / leg techniques) include the Uchi-mata (Inner-thigh reaping throw), the Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), the Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi (Supporting foot lift-pull throw), the Ouchi-gari (Large inner reap), the Kouchi-gari (Small inner reap), and the De-ashi-barai (-harai) (Forward foot sweep), etc... Ashi waza (Foot / leg techniques)
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Atemi Waza

What is Atemi Waza? Striking techniques  
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Ayumi Ashi

What is Ayumi Ashi? Ordinary pattern of walking
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Batsugun

What is Batsugun? Instant promotion
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Budo

What is Budo? Martial ways
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Bujutsu

What is Bujutsu? Martial arts
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Bushido

What is Bushido? Way of the warrior
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Chui

What is a Chui? A "Chui" (Light penalty) is issued when a rules violation occurs during a Judo contest. Penalties for rules violations are ranked in the following ascending order of severity: "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty), "Chui" (Light penalty), "Keikoku" (warning), and "Hansoku-make" (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties). A contestant who receives several "Chui" could draw a "Keikoku" or even a "Hansoku-make." A contestant may draw a "Chui" for intentionally moving outside the contest area during a Tachi-shobu (critical point in a standing Waza), by strangling a body area other than the neck, by pulling the opponent down into a Ne waza (Ground techniques), by bending the opponent's fingers back, and pulling and releasing the opponent, etc. A severe violation may result in the opponent being awarded a "Yuko" point.
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Counting

How to count in Japanese? 1 - Ichi 2 - Ni 3 - San 4 - Shi 5 - Go 6 - Roku 7 - Shichi 8 - Hachi 9 - Ku 10 - Ju 11 - Juichi (10 plus one) 12 - Juni (10 plus 2) ... 19 - Juku (10 plus 9) 20 - Niju (2 10's) ... 29 - Nijuku (2 10's plus a 9) ... 30 - Sanju (3 10's) ... 35 - Sanjugo (3 10's plus a 5) ... 99 - Kujuku (9 10's plus a 9) 100 - Hyaku 1000 - Sen 10,000 - man 100,000 - juman 1,000,000 - hyakuman 10,000,000 - senman 100,000,000 - oku
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Dan

What is Dan? Black belt rank
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Debana

What is Debana? Instant of opportunity to break balance as opponent initiates a motion
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Dojo

What is a Dojo? School or training hall for studying the way
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Eri

What is an Eri? Collar, lapel
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Fudoshin

What is Fudoshin? Immovable spirit
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Fusegi

What is Fusegi? Escapes
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Fusen Gachi

What is Fusen Gachi? Win by default
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Gokyo

What is Gokyo? The collective name for the officially recognised throwing techniques of the Kodokan
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Goshin Jutsu

What is Goshin Jutsu? Art of self defense
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Hajime

What is Hajime? Begin
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Hando no Kuzushi

What is Hando no Kuzushi? Unbalancing by reaction
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Hansoku-make

What is Hansoku-make? In Judo, a contestant will draw a "Hansoku-make" (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties) for committing a very serious Forbidden items, or when committing another rules violation after having already drawn a Keikoku (Warning). A Hansoku-make (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties) is equivalent to an opponent's Ippon gachi (Win by ippon). This is the most serious penalty, disqualification
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Hantei

What is Hantei? Referee call for judge's decision
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Happo no Kuzushi

What is Happo no Kuzushi? Kuzushi in 8 directions
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Hara

What is Hara? Stomach
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Harau

What is Harau? "Harau" (Sweeping technique) is a foot sweep in which the opponent's foot is swept out from under him. The Harau maneuver is used in Waza such as the De-ashi-barai (-harai) (Forward foot sweep), Harai-tsurikomi-ashi (Lift-pull foot sweep), Harai-goshi (Hip sweep), and the Okuri-ashi-barai (-harai) (Foot sweep), etc. This maneuver targets the leg which supports the opponent's weight while he is attempting to recover his balance after being destabilized, and easily topples him. This maneuver represents the fundamental principle of Judo, in that the opponent is toppled by adding only a small force to the opponent's momentum. The success of this Waza depends on the execution timing, the sweep angle, which part of the opponent's leg to strike, which part of one's own foot to use in the sweep, etc., and therefore requires repeated practice. Harau (Sweeping technique)
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Henka

What is Henka? In Judo, a "Henka" (Change) refers to a combination of rapid maneuvers employed to setup the next Waza, and it makes full use of the Tai-sabaki (Body shifting / Body control) or the opponent's destabilized condition. For example, if Tori (Player executing technique) attempts a Tai-otoshi (Body drop), but Uke raises a leg to avoid it, and attempts to straddle Tori's extended leg, Tori performs a "Henka (Change)" by immediately stepping in front of Uke (Player receiving opponent's attack) leg and attempting another Tai-otoshi. Or, Tori may retract his leg and switch to an Uchi-mata (Inner-thigh reaping throw) attack. Other frequently used Henka include switching from a Kosoto-gari (Small outer reap) to a Tai-otoshi (Body drop), from a Tsurikomi-ashi (Foot lift-pull throw) to an Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), and from a Kosoto-gari to an Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), etc... Henka (Change)
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Hidari

What is Hidari? Left
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Hiji

What is Hiji? Elbow
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Hiki-te

What is Hiki-te? "Hiki-te" (Pulling hand) refers to the pulling hand that grasps the opponent. In a right natural posture with a right-hand grip, this hand is the left hand, and generally grips the opponent's sleeve area. The right hand is the "Tsurite" (Lifting hand), and it generally grips the opponent's lapel area. When executing a Waza, the Hiki-te may be used (with armpit closed) to pull the opponent forward or to the side to effectively destabilize him. Inserting a hand into the opponent's sleeve opening, touching the back of the opponent's sleeve, or twisting the sleeve opening are prohibited actions which will draw penalties. Grasping the hem of the uniform for 6 seconds or longer will also draw a penalty. Hiki-te (Pulling hand)
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Hiki-wake

What is Hiki-wake? No decision--tie or draw
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Hiza

What is Hiza? Knee
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Ippon

What is Ippon? Victory in one move, one point
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Jigotai

What is Jigotai? Defensive posture
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Jikan

What is Jikan? Referee call to stop the clock
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Jita Kyoei

What is Jita Kyoei? Principle of mutual prosperity
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Joseki

What is Joseki? Place of honor, upper seat
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Ju no Kata

What is Ju no Kata? Forms of gentleness
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Ju no Ri

What is Ju no Ri? Principle of flexibility or yielding
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Ju yoku go wo seisu

What is Ju yoku go wo seisu? "Softness subdues Hardness" is a famous phrase taken from the ancient Chinese classics (Lao Tzu's "Three Strategies"), and its meaning is that flexibility overcomes rigidity. The Waza of Judo enable a smaller combatant to utilize the opponent's own power to throw him in spectacular fashion. Such a display is often expressed using the "Softness subdues Hardness" phrase.
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Judo

What is Judo? The gentle way
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Judo Ichidai

What is Judo Ichidai? A Judo life--Spending one's life in the diligent pursuit of Judo
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Judogi

What is Judogi? Judo practice uniform
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Judoka

What is Judoka? One who studies Judo
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Jujutsu

What is Jujutsu? Gentle art
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Kaeshi Waza

What is Kaeshi Waza? "Kaeshi-waza" (Counter techniques) are used to counter an opponent's Waza, whereby he is thrown instead of you. Because a Kaeshi-waza consists of transforming the opponent's attempted Waza into your own Waza, it requires skillful Uke-kata (Blocking techniques) and Tai-sabaki (Body shifting / Body control).  
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Kake

What is Kake? Completion or execution of technique
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Kansetsu Waza

What is Kansetsu Waza? "Kansetsu waza" (Joint locking techniques) consist of using one's own legs, arms, and knees, etc., to grasp the opponent's joint (elbow, knee, etc.), and bend it in the reverse direction to lock the joint, thereby rendering him virtually helpless. Most of the Kansetsu waza (Joint locks) use the "lever principle" to lock the opponent's joint.  Because Kansetsu waza (Joint locks) pose considerable risk of injury, they are prohibited in the junior division.
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Kappo

What is Kappo? The term "Kappo" (Resuscitation method) refers to the Waza used to resuscitate a combatant who loses conscious due to a strangle or throwing Waza. Artificial resuscitation is performed to induce chest, stomach, and back movement, thereby restoring normal breathing. In addition to the Sasoi-katsu (Inductive method) used to open the chest, there are also the Eri-katsu (Lapel method) and the So-katsu (Composite method). Judo consists of both "Sappo" (Kill methods) and "Kappo," and the skilled Judo practitioner masters both.
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Kata

What is Kata? Forms
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Katame no kata

What is Katame no kata? Forms of grappling
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Katsu

What is Katsu? Resuscitation
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Keikoku

What is a Keikoku? A "Keikoku" (Warning) is issued when a rule is violated during the course of a Judo contest. The Kodokan rules rank violations in the following ascending order of severity: "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty), "Chui" (Light penalty), "Keikoku" (Warning), and "Hansoku-make" (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties) . There is no "Keikoku" (Warning), however, in the IJF rules. Under Kodokan rules, a "Keikoku" (Warning) is issued when a contestant grasps or picks up a joint other than the knee joint when applying a Kansetsu waza (Joint locks), or when he/she applies a technique or maneuver such as the Kawazu-gake (One-leg entanglement drop) Waza, etc., which could injure the opponent. A contestant may also draw a "Keikoku" (Warning) for speech or behavior which is disrespectful to the opponent, for failing to follow the referee's instruction, and speech or behavior which violates the spirit of Judo.
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Kenka Yotsu

What is Kenka Yotsu? Opposite grips used by each person, one right/one left Kenka yotsu (Asymmetrical grips by the two opponents)
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Ki o tsuke

What is Ki o tsuke? Attention
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Kiai

What is Kiai? To gather spirit with a shout
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Kime no Kata

What is Kime no Kata? Forms of decision
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Kinshi Waza

What is Kinshi Waza? Techniques prohibited in competition
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Kodansha

What is Kodansha? High ranking judoka -- 5th dan and above
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Kodokan

What is Kodokan? Judo institute in Tokyo where Judo was founded
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Kogeki Seyo

What is Kogeki Seyo? Order for judoka to attack
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Koka

What is Koka? Score less than a yuko
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Koshi

What is Koshi? Hip
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Koshi Waza

What is Koshi Waza? "Koshi-waza" (Hip techniques) are part of the "Nage waza" (Throwing techniques) category, and consist of throwing an opponent in a sudden motion, using one's hip as the fulcrum. After pulling an opponent onto one's hip, the Koshi-waza (Hip techniques) may be performed with a leg sweep Waza, by a shoulder throw Waza performed while grasping and lifting one of the opponent's sleeves, or by using the spring force in one's legs to flip the opponent up and over one's hip. Kodokan Judo specifies 11 Koshi-waza (Hip techniques), with the representative ones being the O-goshi (Large hip throw), Harai-goshi (Hip sweep), Hane-goshi (Hip spring), Utsuri-goshi (Hip shift), and the Sode-tsurikomi-goshi (Sleeve lift-pull hip throw). The key to a successful Koshi-waza is a skillful Kumi-te that brings the opponent snugly against one's hip.
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Kubi

What is Kubi? Neck
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Kumikata

What is Kumikata? Gripping methods
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Kuzure

What is Kuzure? Modified hold
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Kuzushi

What is Kuzushi? Unbalancing the opponent Judo's "softness subdues hardness" creed is demonstrated in the act of a small-statured contestant using a larger opponent's own power to throw him. This is one of Judo's attractions, and is no small feat. The execution of such a maneuver relies on "Kuzushi" (Balance breaking). Kuzushi consists of pulling or pushing an opponent to destabilize him / her. Once the opponent is destabilized, the Waza can then be applied with only a small force. There are 8 types (directions) of balance breaking called Happo-Kuzushi: (1) toward the front, (2) toward the right front corner, (3) toward the right, (4) toward the right rear corner, (5) Toward the back, (6) Toward the left rear corner, (7) Toward the left, (8) Toward the left front corner.
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Kyoshi

What is Kyoshi? Instructor
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Kyu

What is Kyu? Judo employs a "Dan" (Degree) and "Kyu" (Grade) ranking system to indicate levels of skill. Judo was the first martial art to adopt the ranking systems used in Go and Shogi. These "Dan" (Degree) and "Kyu" (Grade) concepts were subsequently combined, resulting in the current ranking system.
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Maai

What is Maai? Space or engagement distance
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Mae

What is Mae? Forward, front
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Mae Sabaki

What is Mae Sabaki? Frontal escape
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Mae Ukemi

What is Mae Ukemi? Falling forward
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Maitta

What is Maitta? "Maitta" (Give up) is the sign given by the receiver of a Waza, indicating that he gives up. When a contestant has been rendered helpless by a Waza, he taps the opponent or the floor two times with his hand to indicate surrender. The contest is stopped at that point. Under Kodokan rules, a contestant is awarded an Ippon if he holds down the opponent for 30 seconds (25 seconds under IJF rules), but an Ippon gachi (Win by ippon) will be awarded earlier if the "Maitta" signal is given.
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Masutemi Waza

What is Masutemi Waza? Back sacrifice throws
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Mate

What is Mate? Stop (wait) The referee calls a "Mate" to temporarily stop a contest due to a problem which has occurred. At this time, the referee calls out the word "Mate," and extends one arm horizontally at shoulder height in the direction of the timekeeper, with palm forward and fingers facing up. A "Mate" may be called to allow the contestants to rearrange their disheveled uniforms, or when the contestants are attempting too few Waza and no changes, or when an accident such as bloody nose, etc., occurs. When the referee calls "Mate," the contest is temporarily stopped for a "reset", then the referee gives the "Hajime" signal and the contest is resumed.
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Migi

What is Migi? Right
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Mudansha

What is Mudansha? Students below black belt rank
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Mune

What is Mune? Chest
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Nage

What is Nage? Throw
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Nage no Kata

What is Nage no Kata? Forms of throwing
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Nage Waza

What is Nage Waza? Throwing techniques
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Nagekomi

What is Nagekomi? Repetitive throwing practice
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Ne Waza

What is Ne Waza? Techniques on the ground Ne waza (Ground techniques)
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Obi

What is Obi? Judo belt
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Okuden

What is Okuden? Secret teachings
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Osae komi Waza

What is Osae komi Waza? "Osae komi waza" (Hold-down techniques) is one of Katame-waza (grappling techniques) (Ne waza [Ground techniques]), and consists of covering the opponent with your body, etc., to prevent him from escaping. Points are awarded in accordance with the hold-down time. A pin of 20 seconds or longer, but less than 25 seconds, results in a Yuko, a pin of 25 seconds or longer, but less than 30 seconds, results in a Waza-ari, with an Ippon gachi (Win by ippon) being awarded at 30 seconds. However, a hold-down is deemed broken "Toketa (Hold-down broken)" if the pinned combatant manages to scissor the pinning combatant's leg with both his legs, and the time count is stopped at that point. Points are not awarded for a hold-down outside the contest area.
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Osaekomi

What is Osaekomi? Pin, referee call to begin timing
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Osaekomi Toketa

What is Osaekomi Toketa? Escape, stop timing of hold The referee calls a "Toketa" (Hold-down broken) when a contestant's Osae komi waza (Hold-down techniques) versus the opponent is no longer deemed effective. Under Kodokan rules, a "Toketa" is called if the pinned contestant manages to scissor the opponent's legs with both of his legs from above. Under IJF rules, a "Toketa" is called whether the scissors hold is applied from either below or above. In Regulations regarding junior age groups, a "Toketa" is called if the pinned contestant manages to twist his waist around so that both knees make contact with the floor. In that case, a "Toketa"  is called, followed by a "Mate" (Wait) call, and both contestants then stand up.
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Randori

What is Randori? "Randori" is a free sparring drill which allows both practice partners to execute Waza. Randori is a fundamental Judo drill in which a combatant uses Waza which have polished in Uchikomi (Repetition training) and Yakusoku geiko (Agreed-upon practice), to attack and throw the practice partner in a manner which simulates an actual contest.
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Randori no Kata

What is Randori no Kata? Forms of free practice techniques
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Randori Waza

What is Randori Waza? Techniques for free practice
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Rei

What is Rei? Bow
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Rei Ni Hajimari, Rei Ni Owaru

What is Rei ni hajimari, rei ni owaru? Judo evolved from Japan's ancient martial arts, and its fundamental spirit is expressed by the phrase, "Rei ni hajimari, rei ni owaru" (Beginning and ending with a bow of respect). Judo contestants bow when entering the dojo for practice or a contest, and then bow again when leaving the dojo.
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Reiho

What is Reiho? Reiho is an expression of respect for the other person. The white color of a beginner's Belt reflects the beginner's pureness of heart in terms of respect for the opponent. The beginner learns this Reiho (Etiquette) in order to engage in friendly competition without arrogance. In Judo, there is a "Ritsu-rei" (Standing bow) and a "Zarei" (Seated bow), and these are always performed at the beginning and end of Judo "Kata" (Form) practice, contests, and Randori (Free sparring).
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Renraku Waza

What is Renraku Waza? Combination techniques
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Ritsu Rei

What is Ritsu Rei? The "Ritsu-rei" (Standing bow) is a bow performed from a standing posture. To perform a Ritsu-rei (Standing bow), the contestant stands on the heels of both feet in a natural posture with back straight, then bends the upper body naturally forward by approximately 30-degrees. At this time, the fingers of both hands are lowered to the approximate height of the kneecaps. Prior to a contest, the contestants stand facing each other at the red and white start lines, and then bow toward each other. At the end of the contest, they return to stand again at these start lines and wait for the decision. After the decision, they take one step back, and then bow toward each other.
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Seika Tanden

What is Seika Tanden? A point in the abdomen that is the center of gravity
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Seiryoku Zenyo

What is Seiryoku Zenyo? Seiryoku Zenyo is the principle of maximum efficiency. Judo is based on the principle of a combatant using the motion and momentum of the opponent in order to apply his own power in an optimal manner, thereby generating even more power. Moreover, through the practice of attack and defense, a Judo practitioner can polish his/her own capabilities in both the dojo and in everyday life. The concept of "Seiryoku zenyo" (Maximum efficiency) teaches that enhanced capability which Judo bestows is to be used not so much to topple and overpower an opponent, as to serve society at large.
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Seiza

What is Seiza? Formal kneeling posture
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Sen

What is Sen? Attack initiative
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Sensei

What is Sensei? Teacher, instructor
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Shiai

What is Shiai? Contest
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Shiaijo

What is Shiaijo? Competition area
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Shido

What is a Shido? The "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty) is called when a rules violation occurs during a Judo contest. A Shido is issued for minor violations such as excessive passivity, using a technique or maneuver that hinders the development of a Waza, using a technique or maneuver that poses a risk injury to the opponent. Violations are ranked in the following ascending order of severity: "Shido" (Instruction / Light penalty), "Chui" (Light penalty) , "Keikoku" (Warning), and "Hansoku-make" (Defeat by grave infringement or accumulated light penalties). Generally speaking, a Shido is called if a contestant fails to engage the opponent in a grip and fails to attempt a Waza for approximately 20 seconds, and if a contestant adopts an excessively defensive posture for 6 seconds or longer. Penalty is equal to a koka score.
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Shihan

What is Shihan? Title for a model teacher or "teacher who sets the standard" (i.e. Kano-shihan)
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Shime Waza

What is a Shime Waza? Choking techniques
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Shinpan

What is a Shinpan? Referee
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Shintai

What is a Shintai? Moving forwards, sideways & backwards
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Shisei

What is Shisei? Posture
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Shizentai

What is Shizentai? Natural posture
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Shodan

What is a Shodan? A "Shodan" (Promotion) consists of a Judo practitioner being awarded a higher rank. In order to be promoted, a practitioner must pass the promotion test. Eligibility for this test is based on the practitioner's age and years of Judo experience.
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Shomen

What is Shomen? Dojo front
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Sode

What is Sode? Sleeve
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Soke

What is Soke? Founder of a martial art or ryu
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Sono Mama

What is Sono Mama? Stop action; command to freeze
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Soremade

What is Soremade? "Soremade" (Time up) is called by the referee to signal the end of a contest. Both contestants must immediately cease fighting when the referee calls "Soremade" (Time up). Both contestants must then rearrange their uniforms while returning to their contest start lines. They then stand facing each other and take the natural posture. After the referee declares the decision by announcement and indication, or by announcement and gesture, each contestant must take one step back with the right foot, and perform a "Ritsu-rei" (Standing bow) toward the opponent.
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Sukasu

What is a Sukasu? A "Sukasu" (Evasion) refers to an evasive maneuver (such as moving back, etc.) to avoid an Ashi waza (Foot / Leg techniques) being attempted by the opponent, causing the sweeping motion of the opponent's leg to miss. As the Uchi-mata-sukashi (Inner thigh reaping throw slip) Waza name implies, this is an evasive technique. For example, when the opponent attempts to reap your foot from behind in an Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), you swing that leg forward to avoid his reaping motion. By thus missing his target, he becomes destabilized and easy to topple.
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Sute Geiko

What is Sute Geiko? Randori throwing practice against a higher level judoka
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Sute mi Waza

What is Sutemi Waza? Sute mi waza (Sacrifice techniques) are part of the Nage waza (Throwing techniques) category, and consist of Tori (Player executing technique) wrapping Uke (Player receiving opponent's attack) body around his own and falling together with him. Sute mi waza (Sacrifice techniques) are further divided into the Ma sutemi waza (Supine sacrifice techniques) and Yoko sutemi waza (Side sacrifice techniques) groups. In the Ma sutemi waza (Supine sacrifice techniques), Tori sacrifices his own posture in the backward direction while throwing Uke over his own head. There are 5 Ma sutemi waza types, and they include the Tomoe-nage (Circular throw), the Sumi-gaeshi (Corner throw), and the Ura-nage (Back throw), etc. In the Yoko sutemi waza (Side sacrifice techniques), Tori sacrifices his posture laterally, using that force to throw his opponent. There are 15 Yoko sutemi waza types, and they include the Yoko-gake (Side body drop), the Yoko-guruma (Side wheel), and the Tani-otoshi (Valley drop), etc. The Kawazu-gake (One-leg entanglement drop) and the Kani-basami (Scissors throw) are considered dangerous, and are therefore prohibited.
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Tachi Waza

What is Tachi Waza? "Tachi-waza" (Standing techniques) are performed from a standing posture, and they refer to Nage waza (Throwing techniques) which include Te waza (Hand techniques), Ashi waza (Foot / Leg techniques), and Koshi waza (Hip techniques). Kodokan Judo lists 15 Te waza, including the Seoi-nage (Shoulder throw), Tai-otoshi (Body drop), Kata-guruma (Shoulder wheel), Sukui-nage (Scooping throw ), Morote-gari (Two-hands reap), and Ippon-seoi-nage (One-armed shoulder throw), etc., 11 Koshi waza (Hip techniques), including the Uki-goshi (Floating hip throw), O-goshi (Large hip throw), Harai-goshi (Hip sweep), Sode-tsurikomi-goshi (Sleeve lift-pull hip throw), etc., and 21 Ashi waza (Foot / Leg techniques), including the De-ashi-barai (-harai) (Forward foot sweep) , Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), Ouchi-gari (Large inner reap), Harai-tsurikomi-ashi (Lift-pull foot sweep). Nearly all Tachi-waza (Standing techniques) utilize Tai-sabaki (Body shifting / Body control) maneuvers to destabilize and throw an opponent without falling oneself.
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Tai Sabaki

What is Tai Sabaki? "Tai-sabaki" (Body shifting / Body control) refers to the manner in which a contestant changes his body position and orientation when executing or receiving a Waza. The four basic Tai-sabaki maneuvers are as follows: "Mae-sabaki" (Front movement control), in which the contestant steps forward to place one foot immediately in front of the opponent's foot, with body at right angles to the opponent. "Ushiro-sabaki" (Back movement control), in which the contestant steps back with one foot, distancing it from the opponent's foot, with body at right angles to the opponent. "Mae-mawari-sabaki" (front turn movement control), in which the contestant steps forward with one foot and spins around in front of the opponent with back to the opponent. "Ushiro-mawari-sabaki" (Back turn movement control), in which the contestant pulls the opponent forward while stepping back with one foot, then spins around in front of the opponent with back to the opponent.
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Tatami

What is Tatami? Mat
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Te

What is Te? Hand, arm
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Te Waza

What is Te Waza? "Te waza" (hand techniques) belong to the Nage waza (Throwing techniques) group, and consist of effectively using the hands/arms to throw the opponent. Kodokan Judo lists 15 Te waza (hand techniques): Seoi-nage (Shoulder throw), Tai-otoshi (Body drop), Kata-guruma (Shoulder wheel), Sukui-nage (Scooping throw ), Uki-otoshi (Floating drop), Sumi-otoshi (Corner drop), Obi-otoshi (Belt drop), Seoi-otoshi (Shoulder drop), Yama-arashi (Mountain storm throw), Morote-gari (Two-hands reap), Kuchiki-taoshi (One-hand drop), Kibisu-gaeshi (Heel trip), Uchi-mata-sukashi (Inner thigh reaping throw slip), Kouchi-gaeshi (Small inner reaping throw counter), Ippon-seoi-nage (One-armed shoulder throw).
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Tekubi

What is Tekubi? Wrist
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Tokui Waza

What is Tokui Waza? Favorite or best technique
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Tori

What is Tori? "Tori" (Player executing technique) refers to the person who is executing a Waza during Kata (Form) training or Yakusoku geiko (Agreed-upon practice). The contestant who receives this Waza is called "Uke" (Player receiving opponent's attack).
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Tsugi Ashi

What is Tsugi Ashi? Walking by bringing one foot up to another
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Tsukuri

What is Tsukuri? Entry into a technique, positioning
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Tsurite

What is Tsurite? Tsurite" (Lifting hand) refers to the lifting hand that grasps the opponent. In a right natural posture with a right-hand grip, this is the right hand, and it generally grips the opponent's lapel area. The left hand is the "Hiki-te" (Pulling hand), and it generally grips the opponent's sleeve area. When executing a Waza, the Tsurite  may be used to lift the back or side of the opponent's collar and to push the opponent's uniform in the backward direction. Grasping the back of the opponent's collar or his back area without executing a Waza is restricted (time limit) or prohibited.
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Uchikomi

What is Uchikomi? "Uchikomi" (Repetition training) is a term borrowed from Kendo, and is used in Judo to refer to the repeated practice of a throwing motion up to the point where the throw would actually be executed (the simulation stops at that point).
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Ude

What is Ude? Arm
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Uke

What is Uke? In Kata (Form) and Yakusoku geiko (Agreed-upon practice) exercises, "Uke" (Player receiving opponent's attack) refers to the combatant who is receiving a Waza, and "Tori" (Player executing technique) refers to the combatant who is executing the Waza. Uke maintains the correct posture, and allows Tori to easily execute the Waza without resisting. Uke moves in tandem with Tori, allowing himself to be thrown, and practicing his Ukemi (Break fall) techniques in the process.
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Ukemi

What is Ukemi? Ukemi (Break fall) techniques are used to soften the landing impact after being thrown. There are three fall breaking techniques: the back break fall, the side break fall, and the forward roll break fall. The back break fall protects the back of the head, the hips, and the back from the fall's impact, and the side and forward break falls protect the shoulders and chest, etc. The fall breaking techniques depend on a balanced use of the arms and legs to disperse the impact. Newcomers to Judo begin to learn the Waza only after mastering the fall breaking techniques. This eliminates their fear of being thrown and enables them to master the Waza.
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Uratori

What is Uratori? "Uratori" (Counter techniques) are used to counter an opponent's Waza, whereby he is toppled instead of you. More than a defensive maneuver, an Uratori is a technique that turns an urgent situation into an opportunity. For example, if Uke attacks with an Osoto-gari (Large outer reap), Tori can step back with one leg and back away from Uke. Tori then shifts his center of gravity to that back leg (now his support leg) and twists his body to destabilize Uke in the backward direction, and then executes his own Osoto-gari. Uratori allows a combatant to execute a counter maneuver at the instant he is attacked, and is one of the more interesting aspects of Judo.
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Ushiro

What is Ushiro? Backward, rear
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Ushiro Sabaki

What is Ushiro Sabaki? Back movement control
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Ushiro Ukemi

What is Ushiro Ukemi? Falling backward
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Waki

What is Waki? Armpit
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Waza

What is Waza? Technique
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Waza Ari

What is Waza Ari? Near ippon or half point
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Waza ari Awasete Ippon

What is Waza ari Awasete Ippon? Two waza-ari together for ippon
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Yakusoku Geiko

What is Yakusoku Geiko (or renshu)? Pre-arranged free practice
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Yoko

What is Yoko? Side
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Yoko Kaiten Ukemi

What is Yoko Kaiten Ukemi? Sideways rolling break fall
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Yoko Sutemi Waza

What is Yoko Sutemi Waza? Side sacrifice throws
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Yoko Ukemi

What is Yoko Ukemi? Falling sideways
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Yoshi

What is Yoshi? Resume action, continue
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Yubi

What is Yubi? Finger
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Yudansha

What is Yudansha? Person who earned the black belt
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Yudanshakai

What is Yudanshakai? Black belt association
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Yuko

What is Yuko? In Judo, the "Yuko" (Effective / Moderate advantage) refers to a point which is awarded in accordance with the Judgment of a technique. A Waza is judged in three ascending grades: "Yuko" (Effective / Moderate advantage), "Waza-ari", "Ippon gachi" (Win by ippon). The contestant who is awarded an "Ippon gachi" or two "Waza-ari" wins the contest. A "Yuko" is never converted to a "Waza-ari" or an "Ippon gachi," regardless of how many are awarded to the contestant. Moreover, a single "Waza-ari" outweighs any number "Yuko." However, if only "Yuko" have been awarded, the contestant with the most "Yuko" generally wins the contest. In the case of a Nage waza (Throwing techniques), a "Yuko" is awarded when the Waza was deemed effective, but just short of a "Waza-ari". In the case of an Osae komi waza (Hold-down techniques), a "Yuko" is awarded when a contestant pins the opponent for 20 seconds or longer, but less than 25 seconds.
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Yusei Gachi

What is Yusei Gachi? Win by judge's decision
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Zanshin

What is Zanshin? "Zanshin" (Awareness) is a term from Japan's martial arts. To be in a Zanshin state, is to remain on guard to the end, keeping one's concentration focused. The moment after executing what appears to be a successful Waza, a contestant may relax his guard, thus presenting the opponent with a chance to counter. A contestant must therefore remain focused until the win has been completely secured. For example, after using a Nage waza (Throwing techniques), etc., to successfully throw an opponent, the contestant's focus may be on the fallen opponent, when he should in fact be focusing on a follow-up Waza. The state in which one remains focused at all times is called "Zanshin" (Awareness).
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Zarei

What is Zarei? Kneeling salutation
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Zenpo Kaiten Ukemi

What is Zenpo Kaiten Ukemi? Forward rolling break fall
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Zubon

What is Zubon? Pants
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